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Activity Pyramid

A pyramid of activities that can help develop a fitness plan.

Agility

The ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control your body’s movements.

Allergy

A specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance.

Anger Management

The ability to constructively deal with anger.
      Example of a Five Step Anger Management Model:
      1. Relax, take a deep breath
      2. Calm down
      3. Evaluate the options
      4. Solve the problem using good words
      5. Walk away if no resolution

Artistic Gymnastics

Balance beam, vault, bars, and/or floor routine.

Asthma

A disorder that causes the airways that carry air into the lungs to become narrow and to become clogged with mucus.

Bacteria

Extremely small, single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus; single-celled microorganisms that are found everywhere.

Balance

The ability to keep an upright posture while standing still or moving.

Balance and Control Skills

The ability to control the movement of the body while stationary or moving.

Biomechanical Principles

Rules related to the study of forces that can help a person move the body efficiently and avoid injury.

Body Composition

All of the tissues that together make up the body; bone, muscle, skin, fat, and body organs.

Body Systems

A group of organs that work together to complete a specific task in the body.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to use and send fuel and oxygen to the body's tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity.

CBAs

Elementary CBAs
  • A Cartoon Role Model – Assessment that asks an individual to describe positive and negative role model characteristics; demonstrate the strategy role model used to deal with stress (peer pressure, eustress and distress).
  • Concepts of Health and Fitness – Assessment that includes one point responses (multiple choice), two point responses (short answer), and four point responses (critical thinking) questions aligned with EALRs 1, 2, and 4.
  • Get Fit Summer – Assessment that asks an individual to evaluate current fitness scores for a fitness component (using an identified fitness test) and set a realistic goal score; describe how certain activities will help achieve goal and identify safety concern, equipment or rule for activity.
  • Mrs. Trimble’s Muffins – Assessment that analyzes nutrient groups on a nutritional label for positive and negative nutritional value and describes why people should either limit or include them in their diet; using the food pyramid, identify foods that make a balanced meal and explain how the chosen foods can benefit the human body.
  • New Kid on the Block – Assessment that asks an individual to identify reasons for and emotional effects of bullying; demonstrate negative and positive choices that could be made in response to bullying and their possible outcomes.
  • Stomp out Second-Hand Smoke – Assessment that asks an individual to use reliable sources, describe negative health effects of second-hand smoke and the regions of the body effected.
  • Welcome to Our School – Assessment that asks an individual to identify forms of harassment and describe strategies for dealing with each in addition to sources of help; describe disease prevention strategies related to spread of communicable diseases and how they would be practiced; describe health and fitness goals and how they might help keep students physically fit.
Middle School CBAs
  • Acme Advertising – Assessment that demonstrates how social skills can lead to a positive resolution of a negative social situation.
  • Concepts of Health and Fitness – Assessment that includes one point responses (multiple choice), two point responses (short answer), and four point responses (critical thinking) questions aligned with EALRs 1, 2, and 4.
  • Fitness Plan for Pat – Assessment that asks an individual to describe each FITT component; describe two areas of nutrition and physical activity that will improve body composition.
  • Sara’s Story – Assessment that demonstrates short and long term effects (physical, emotional, social, and intellectual) of drug use.
  • Touring the Systems – Assessment that compares components of circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, muscular, skeletal, reproductive, and/or endocrine systems to everyday objects.
  • True Media Message – Assessment that asks individuals to identify false messages in advertisements and explain how they negatively affect a person's social, emotional, or physical well-being.
High School CBAs
  • A Letter to the Publisher – Assessment that requires an individual to identify negative messages (relating to body image, peer pressure, etc.) contained in advertisements; describe changes that could be made to advertisements that would result in a positive effect.
  • Cafeteria Choices – Assessment that asks an individual to compare nutritional labels and identify positive and negative nutritional components; identify additional foods that would compensate for negative components and explain why.
  • Concepts of Health and Fitness – Assessment that includes one point responses (multiple choice), two point responses (short answer), and four point responses (critical thinking) questions aligned with EALRs 1, 2, and 4.
  • Cut Out Conflict – Assessment that demonstrates conflict resolution skills (verbal and nonverbal) and explain how community resources may help resolve conflict.
  • Dear “Stressed and Depressed” – Assessment that asks an individual to identify healthy stress management strategies and how they are used to relieve stress; identify signs of depression and describe how community resources may help.
  • Fitness Planning – Assessment that asks an individual to evaluate current fitness level for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance, and flexibility and determine whether a maintenance or improvement plan is most appropriate; using FITT principle, demonstrate how maintenance or improvement plan will help achieve goal.
  • New Student Orientation – Assessment that explains legal consequences (laws and penalties) of drug/alcohol use, stages of dependence/addiction (including behaviors), effects of use (on family, school, community, and emotional health), and describe services that community resources can provide.


Communicable Disease

Disease that can be spread to people from other living things or the environment.

Complex Motor Activities

Activities that involve more than one skill.

Complex Motor Skills

Composed of two or more skills (e.g., hopping and skipping, throwing and catching).

Complex Movement Sequences

Combination of motor skills.

Components of Health-Related Fitness

Parts of physical fitness that help a person stay healthy; includes body composition, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular endurance, and muscular strength.
   Body Composition - All of the tissues that together make up the body; bone, muscle, skin, fat, and body organs.
   Cardiorespiratory Endurance - The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to use and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity.
   Flexibility - The ability to move the joints through a full range of motion.
   Muscular Endurance - The ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued.
   Muscular Strength - The amount of force a muscle can exert.

Components of Skill-Related Fitness

Parts of physical fitness that help a person perform well in sports and activities that require certain skills; includes agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed.
  • Agility - The ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control your body’s movements.
  • List Balance - The ability to keep an upright posture while standing still or moving.
  • List Coordination - The ability to use your senses together with your body parts, or to use two or more body parts together.
  • List Power - The ability to move strength quickly.
  • List Reaction Time - The ability to react or respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feel.
  • List Speed - The ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time.


Concepts of Direction

Forward, backward, over, under, and through.

Concepts of Effort

Exertion of physical or mental power in activities.

Concepts of Levels

Low, medium or high.

Concepts of Pathways

Zigzag, straight, or curved.

Concepts of Relationships

The position of the performer related to a piece of equipment or to other performers.

Concepts of Spatial Awareness

Spatial awareness allows children to understand their location and the location of objects in relation to their own bodies.

Conflict Resolution

Non-violent way to deal with an argument.
    Examples of a Four Step Conflict Resolution Model:
    1. Clarify
    2. Choice
    3. Consequences
    4. Choose

Coordination

The ability to use your senses together with your body parts, or to use two or more body parts together.

Critical Elements

Identifying specific elements of a task.

Decision-Making Skills

Steps used to evaluate choices and consequences before making a decision.
    Example of a Six Step Decision-Making Model:
    1. State the problem.
    2. Ask questions/gather information.
    3. Compare alternatives.
    4. Imagine the consequences/values.
    5. Decide and act.
    6. Evaluate the decision.

Dimensions and Indicators of Health

State of well-being in which all of the components of health: physical, emotional, social, mental/intellectual, spiritual, and environmental are in balance.
  • Physical Health - Refers to the way your body functions; proper nutrition and sleep, regular exercise, recommended body weight.
  • Emotional Health - Expressing emotions in a positive, nondestructive way.
  • Social Health – Quality of relationships with friends, family, teachers, and others.
  • Mental/Intellectual Health - Ability to recognize reality and cope with the demands of daily life. It is the ability to enjoy learning and know that striving for information and understanding can be an exciting, life-long process.
  • Environmental Health - Keeping air and water clean, food safe, and the land around you enjoyable and safe.


Dimensions of Health

State of well-being in which all of the components of health: physical, emotional, social, mental/intellectual, spiritual, and environmental are in balance.
  • Physical Health - Refers to the way your body functions; proper nutrition and sleep, regular exercise, recommended body weight.
  • Emotional Health - Expressing emotions in a positive, nondestructive way.
  • Social Health – Quality of relationships with friends, family, teachers, and others.
  • Mental/Intellectual Health - Ability to recognize reality and cope with the demands of daily life. It is the ability to enjoy learning and know that striving for information and understanding can be an exciting, life-long process.
  • Environmental Health - Keeping air and water clean, food safe, and the land around you enjoyable and safe.


Distress

Negative stress.

Drug

Substance other than food that changes the structure or function of the body or mind.

Dynamic and Cooperative Situations

Situations where individuals use team work to overcome challenges.

Dynamic Balance

The ability to balance under changing conditions of body movement.

Educational Gymnastics

Stunts, balances, poses, and animal movements.

Emergency Situations

When an individual is in an unsafe situation.

Emotional Triggers

Something that provokes a response.

Etiquette

Rules governing socially acceptable behavior.

Eustress

Positive stress.

Fitness Log

A notebook used to record one's fitness activities.

FitnessGram

A group of physical fitness assessments developed specifically for youth.

FITT Principle

A formula in which each letter represents a factor important for determining the correct amount of physical activity. F=Frequency, I=Intensity, T=Time, T=Type
   Frequency - How often you do the activity each week.
   Intensity - How hard you work at the activity per session.
   Time - How long you work out at each session.
   Type - Which activities you select.

   FITT Principle for Cardiorespiratory Endurance:
      Frequency - Exercise 3-5 times per week.
      Intensity - Train at 60-85% of target heart rate zone.
      Time - 20-60 minutes per session is recommended.
      Type – Any aerobic activity that keeps heart rate within your target heart rate zone is good (e.g., running, bicycling, swimming).

   FITT Principle for Muscular Endurance:
      Frequency - Weight train 2-4 times per week.
      Intensity - Add or maintain weight and repetition during the workout.
      Time - A total workout can be about 30-60 minutes.
      Type - An activity that allows the muscles to perform a physical task over a period of time without becoming fatigued (resistance training, yoga, Pilates). To build muscular endurance, lift lighter weight (less resistance) with more (8-15) repetitions.

   FITT Principle for Muscular Strength:
      Frequency – Weight train 2-4 times per week.
      Intensity - To build strength, lift heavier weights (more resistance) with fewer (3-8) repetitions.
      Time – A total workout can be about 30-60 minutes.
      Type – Anaerobic activities such as weight lifting and sit-ups tend to develop muscular strength and endurance.

   FITT Principle for Flexibility:
      Frequency - Daily stretching.
      Intensity - Stretch muscles and hold beyond its normal length at a comfortable stretch.
      Time – Hold stretch for 10-15 seconds with the stretching workout lasting 15-30 minutes.
      Type - Use stretches that allow the body to move through the full range of motion.

Five Senses

Touch, smell, taste, hearing, and sight.

Fleeing

Traveling quickly away from a pursuing person or object.

Fleer

Someone who travels quickly away from a pursuing person.

Flexibility

The ability to move the joints through the full range of motion.

Food Guide Pyramid

Recommendations as prescribed by the federal government, mypyramid.gov.

Food Label

A label found on the outside packages of food that states the number of servings in the container, the number of calories in each serving, and the amount of nutrients in each serving.

Fundamental Motor Skills

Composed of simple skills: crawling, picking up small objects, or running.

General Space

Area outside of someone's personal space (e.g., classroom, field, or gym).

Germ

A minute life form (especially a disease –causing bacterium).

Goal Setting

Achievement you work towards.

Health and Fitness Plan

Evaluates current health and fitness levels for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility and analyzes individual health behaviors (e.g., diet, sleep, activity, fitness, and hydration) to determine whether a maintenance or improvement plan is most appropriate.

Healthy Fitness Zone

Criterion to evaluate fitness performance. Performance is classified into two general areas: "in the healthy fitness zone (HFZ)" and "needs improvement."

Increasingly Complex Activities

Activities which involve progressively difficult dynamics.

Indicators of Health

Physical, mental, emotional, and social.

Inverted Balance

Sustained balance (approximately three seconds) with head below body.

Lead-Up Games

Games developed for the purpose of limiting the number of skills needed for successful participation.

Leave No Trace

An educational non-profit organization dedicated to the responsible enjoyment and active stewardship of the outdoors by all people worldwide.

Locomotor

Used to move the body from one place to another (e.g., walk, jog, run, jump, hop, leap, gallop, slide, and skip).

Major Body Systems

Respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, muscular, endocrine, reproductive, digestive, and nervous systems.

Major Bones

Cranium, clavicle, sternum, vertebra, ribs, pelvis, humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, fibula, and patella.

Major Muscles

Abdominals, biceps, triceps, pectorals, hamstrings, quadriceps, gluteals, and back muscles.

Manipulative

Various objects designed to be moved by hand as a means of developing motor skills (e.g., roll, bounce, toss, throw, catch/receive, strike, kick, punt, and hand/foot dribble in isolation).

Mature Form

The critical elements of a skill, performed in a smooth and continuous motion.

Motor Skill Combinations

Composed of two or more skills; gross motor skills, (crawling, running, and jumping); and fine motor skills, (grasping an object between the thumb and a finger).

Motor Skills

Motor skills are actions that involve the movement of muscles in the body. They are divided into two groups: gross motor skills, which include the larger movements of arms, legs, feet, or the entire body (crawling, running, and jumping); and fine motor skills, which are smaller actions, such as grasping an object between the thumb and a finger or using the lips and tongue to taste objects.

Movement Concepts

   1. Identifies body planes and parts.
   2. Changes in direction, pathways and levels can alter movement.
   3. Explains how changes in rhythm, tempo, beat, and musical style can alter movements.
   4. Distinguishes between personal and general space.

Muscular Endurance

The ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued.

Muscular Strength

The amount of force a muscle can exert.

MyPyramid

Food Guidance System translates nutritional recommendations into the kinds and amounts of food to eat each day. MyPyramid was released in April 2005 and replaces the Food Guide Pyramid (1992), the widely recognized nutrition education tool.

Non-communicable Disease

A disease that is not transmitted by another person or from the environment (e.g., heart disease).

Non-Locomotor

Without moving from place to place (e.g., bend, twist, stretch, push, pull, turn, swing, sway, and rock).

Non-Traditional Skills

Rhythmic gymnastics, juggling, and cup stacking.

Not Well

Ill/Not feeling good.

Nutrients

Substances in food that provide energy or help form body tissues and that is necessary for life and growth.

PACER

Stands for Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and is a test for cardiovascular fitness.

Performance

Showing a learned skill.

Personal Risk Assessment Tool

It is an interactive tool to learn more about personal health risks. It can be used to explore the effects of a wide variety of health care interventions.

Personal Space

Area around self.

Phases of a Workout

  • Warm-up: 5-10 minutes of light exercise to increase blood flow and raise the temperature in muscles.
  • Stretching: About 5 minutes of stretching to increase flexibility and help avoid injury and strained muscles.
  • Physical Activity: The designated workout, 20-60 minutes.
  • Cool-down: 5-10 minutes of reduced exercise to help the heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature, and circulation return to the non-exercising state.


Power

The ability to move strength quickly.

Principles

A basic truth, law, or assumption.

Proficiency

Well advanced or competent in any subject or skills.

Progressive Movement Combinations

Sequence of actions.

Reaction Time

The ability to react or respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feel.

Refusal Skills

A strategy to avoid doing something you don't want to do
   Examples of a Six Step Refusal Skill Model:
   1. Say "NO".
   2. Ask questions.
   3. State the problem.
   4. List the consequences.
   5. Suggest alternatives.
   6. Move, sell, leave the door open.

Repeatable Sequences

Specific movements combined together to create a desired outcome. This may include traveling, rolling, balancing, and weight transfer into smooth, flowing sequence with intentional changes in direction, speed, and flow.

Rhythmic skills

Rhythmic skills are activities such as creative movement to music, multicultural dance, and/or jump rope.

Safety Principles

Ways to maintain personal safety when involved in activities.

Safety Rules

Defined rules to keep participants safe.

Situational Context Clues

Be aware of your surroundings (e.g., someone following you).

Skill-Related Fitness

Six areas of physical fitness that are often associated with games and sports.
  • Agility — The ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control your body's movements.
  • Balance — The ability to keep an upright posture while standing still or moving.
  • Coordination — The ability to use your senses together with your body parts, or to use two or more body parts together.
  • Power — The ability to move strength quickly.
  • Reaction Time — The ability to react or respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feel.
  • Speed — The ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time.


Skill-related Fitness Assessments

Agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed.

Skills Performance

The capability for doing a specific task well: improves with practice.

Speed

The ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time.

Sportsmanship

Fairness in following the rules of the game.

Stages of Stress

  1. Alarm Stage – The body and mind go on high alert. The “fight-or-flight” response prepares the body to either defend itself or flee from danger.
  2.    
  3. Resistance State – During this stage, the body adapts to the rush created by alarm stage and reacts to the stressor. This is the stage in which the body either decides to “fight” or take “flight”.
  4.    
  5. Fatigue – When exposure to stress is prolonged, the body is affected and loses its ability to adapt to the situation and fatigue may set in causing a tired feeling. Both the body and mind become exhausted. This prolonged or repeated stress can lead to life threatening situations such as high blood pressure, heart disease, or stroke.


Static and Dynamic Balance

Balance while stationary and moving.

Static Balance

The ability to retain the center of mass above the base of support in a stationary position.

Strikes

To come into contact with a paddle, object. To perform various striking skills; e. g. place ball away from opponent in a racquet sport, overhead volleyball serve, or football punt.

Tagger

The person who safely and appropriately touches a person or object.

Tagging

Traveling quickly toward a person or object to safely touch.

Traditional Skills

Soccer, hockey, or basketball are some examples.

Training Principles

  • Overload — Rule that states that in order to improve fitness one needs to do more physical activity than he or she normally does.
  • Specificity — Rule that states that specific types of exercise improve specific parts of fitness or muscles.
  • Progression — Rule that states that the amount and intensity of physical activity needs to be increased gradually.
  • Reversibility — Fitness benefits are lost when training stops.
  • Diminishing Return — Point at which you are doing more harm than good.


Traverse Climbing Activities

A type of climbing where students are never more than a few feet off the floor as they climb across (sideways) the wall.

Types of Abuse

Physical, emotional/psychological, mental, and sexual abuse.

Virus

A tiny, disease-causing particle that consists of genetic material and a protein coat and that invades a healthy cell and instructs that cell to make more viruses.

Well

Healthy

 
 
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