Science, 2009
  Grade Level:   4-5  
  EALR 4:   Earth and Space Science  
  Big Idea:   Earth Systems Structures and Processes (ES2)  
  Core Content:   Formation of Earth Materials                   
  Description:   In prior years, students learned that water plays an essential role in Earth systems, including shaping landforms and weather. In grades 4-5 students learn how Earth materials change and how they can be used for various purposes. They learn that Earth materials include solid rocks and soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere. People use many of these materials as resources to meet their needs. One of the most important Earth resources is soil, since people depend on fertile soil to grow food. The processes that produce soils offer an excellent opportunity for students to understand how Earth materials change gradually over time, and provide a solid grounding for later study of landforms and large-scale changes of Earth's surface that students will learn in middle school.  
  Content Standard:   4-5 ES2E Soils are often found in layers, with each layer having a different chemical composition and different physical properties.  
Students are expected to:
  • Compare different layers in soil with respect to physical properties (e.g., color, texture, particle size, amount of dead plant and animal material, capacity for holding water).